In the 2nd edition I dispute the existence of leaky gut as having been shown in people. Well, now, as of July in Gastroenterology (an authoritative journal) what can be taken as a leaky gut is shown via direct viewing. The technique is via a microscopic viewing endoscope inserted per-oral into the duodenum. When a solution containing a suspension of a food to which the patient was allergic was sprayed via the scope onto the surface of the duodenum, the cells could be seen to swell and fluid extravasated between them: i.e. “leaked”. This is really big news and the research deserves applause. Direct testing for immediate food allergy can now be done, but it will be very expensive. Let’s see what happens over the next year. (diarrhea was not described as an aftereffect but rather cramps and aching).